Saturday, October 27, 2012

Across The Universe : Keeping an Earthly Eye on Io’s Insane Volcanic Activity

Keeping an Earthly Eye on Io’s Insane Volcanic Activity:
Across The Universe
Although space missions Voyager and Galileo observed evidence of volcanic activity on Io, it was a faint blue plume at the edge of Io’s limb in a highly-enhanced image from Voyager that first offered evidence of the moon’s turbulent nature.
You fancy yourself an armchair astronomer? A group of California researchers have stepped it up a notch by monitoring the intense volcanic eruptions on Jupiter’s strangest moon Io from the comfort of their home.
Io, the innermost of the four largest moons around Jupiter, or the Galilean moons, is the most volcanically active object in the Solar System with more than 400 active volcanoes spitting out plumes of sulfur and sulfur dioxide. Scientists think a gravitational tug-of-war with Jupiter is one cause of Io’s intense vulcanism. Researchers point out that most of the processes are not well understood. While Io’s eruptions can’t be seen directly from Earth, a team led by Frank Marchis, a researcher at the Carl Sagan Center of the SETI Institute have come up with an unique combination of Earth-based telescope arrays and archival imagery from the Voyager and Galileo probes, according to a press release. The team announced their findings at the 2012 Division of Planetary Sciences meeting today in Reno, Nevada.

Across The Universe : Isotopic Evidence of the Moon’s Violent Origins

Isotopic Evidence of the Moon’s Violent Origins:
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Artist’s impression of an impact of two planet-sized worlds (NASA/JPL-Caltech)
Scientists have uncovered a history of violence hidden within lunar rocks, further evidence that our large, lovely Moon was born of a cataclysmic collision between worlds billions of years ago.

Across The Universe : Integral: Ten Years Tracking Extreme Radiation Across the Universe

Integral: Ten Years Tracking Extreme Radiation Across the Universe:
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Caption: Artist’s impression of ESA’s orbiting gamma-ray observatory Integral. Image credit: ESA
Integral, ESA’s International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory launched ten years ago this week. This is a good time to look back at some of the highlights of the mission’s first decade and forward to its future, to study at the details of the most sensitive, accurate, and advanced gamma-ray observatory ever launched. But the mission has also had some recent exciting research of a supernova remnant. (...)

Across The Universe : Our Gorgeous, Graceful, Gradient Sun

Our Gorgeous, Graceful, Gradient Sun:

Here’s a mesmerizing video from the folks over at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center’s visualization studio showing the Sun in a whole new light… well, a reprocessed light anyway.
Using what’s called a gradient filter, images of the Sun can be adjusted to highlight the intricate details of its dynamic atmosphere. Magnetic activity that’s invisible to human vision can be brought into view, showing the powerful forces in play within the Sun’s corona and helping researchers better understand how it affects space weather. (Plus they sure are pretty!)
Compiled into a video, these images reveal the hidden beauty — and power — of our home star in action.
Video courtesy NASA/GSFC

Across The Universe : 2012 Orionid Meteor Shower Peaks This Weekend

2012 Orionid Meteor Shower Peaks This Weekend:
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A composite image of every meteor captured in a viewing session for the 2011 Orionid Meteor shower at Middle Falls, near Mount Shasta in California. Credit: Brad Goldpaint/Goldpaint Photography. Used by permission.
The Earth will soon be traveling through the stream of debris left behind by Halley’s Comet, providing the annual sky show called the Orionid Meteor Shower. This usually reliable meteor shower is expected to peak this coming weekend, October 20-21, 2012, and should produce about 25 meteors per hour, according to the McDonald Observatory at The University of Texas in Austin.
How can you see the show?

Across The Universe : Surprise! Galaxies Still Evolving in Present Universe

Surprise! Galaxies Still Evolving in Present Universe:
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A giant spiral of gas dust and stars, Messier 101 spans 170,000 light-years and contains more than a trillion stars. Astronomers have uncovered a surprising trend in galaxy evolution where galaxies like M101 and the Milky Way Galaxy continued to develop into settled disk galaxies long after previously thought. Credit: NASA/ESA Hubble
Graceful in their turnings, spiral galaxies were thought to have reached their current state billions of years ago. A study of hundreds of galaxies, however, upsets that notion revealing that spiral galaxies, like the Andromeda Galaxy and our own Milky Way, have continued to change.
“Astronomers thought disk galaxies in the nearby universe had settled into their present form by about 8 billion years ago, with little additional development since,” said Susan Kassin, an astronomer at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md., and the study’s lead researcher in a press release. “The trend we’ve observed instead shows the opposite, that galaxies were steadily changing over this time period.”

Across The Universe : How Have the 2012 Doomsday Myths Become Part of our Accepted Lexicon?

How Have the 2012 Doomsday Myths Become Part of our Accepted Lexicon?:
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The whole “December 21st, 2012 Doomsday” hype had pretty much fallen off my radar. I hadn’t received an email from a concerned or fearful person for months and no one had alerted me to any new breathlessly hyped end-of-the-word videos for quite some time. Optimistically, I began to think that the Mayan-Prophecy-Pole-Shift-Nibiru (et. al) nonsense was just a passing fad.
But, somehow it seems, doomsday hype has made it into the public’s psyche. I recently saw a local newscast that mentioned the world would be ending soon, albeit jokingly, and sometimes even well-meaning publications give the Mayan prophesies undue credence with unfortunate headlines. But a couple of recent polls say that 10-12% of people have doubts they will survive past Dec. 21st of this year. And a few conversations I’ve had with those who have been on the front lines of debunking the 2012 doomsday predictions reveal that an upcoming “end of the world” is somehow very real for a measurable segment of the population.
How has something that is steeped in nonsense with no scientific accuracy whatsoever managed to capture such attention?

Across The Universe : Soyuz Launches New Crew to Space Station

Soyuz Launches New Crew to Space Station:
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The Soyuz rocket with three Expedition 33/34 crew members launched to the International Space Station on Tuesday, October 23, 2012, in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls
Three new crew members — and a stuffed hippo — are on their way to the International Space Station. Expedition 33/34 NASA Flight Engineer Kevin Ford, Soyuz Commander Oleg Novitskiy and Flight Engineer Evgeny Tarelkin launched aboard the Soyuz TMA-06M spacecraft at 10:51 UTC (6:51 a.m. EDT, 5:51 p.m. Baikonur time) Tuesday from the Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan. The trio is now safely in orbit, and on Thursday they will hook up with the ISS and join their Expedition 33 crewmates — Commander Suni Williams, ISS veteran Yuri Malenchenko, and Akihiko Hoshide — onboard the Space Station.
It was a beautiful daytime launch from the Site 31 launchpad, a different pad than usual. The pad that is normally used for human launches is undergoing renovations.
The stuffed hippo was given to the crew by Novitskiy’s daughter. Soyuz crews have had a history of having a mascot hanging in view of the cameras and when it starts floating is the visual confirmation of when the crew reaches orbit. The hippo isn’t the only animal on board. 32 medaka fish are stowed along for the ride, as they will be part of a new aquarium on the ISS called the Aquatic Habitat that will study how the fish adapt to microgravity.
Watch the video of the launch, below:

Across The Universe : Cheops – A Little Satellite with Big Ideas

Cheops – A Little Satellite with Big Ideas:
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Caption: Artist impression of Cheops. Credit: University of Bern
Big isn’t always better. This is certainly true at ESA’s new Science Programme. They are looking to low cost, small scale missions that can be rapidly developed, in order to offer greater flexibility in response to new ideas from the scientific community, to complement the broader Medium- and Large-class missions. Back in March ESA called for ideas for dedicated, quick-turnaround missions focusing on key issues in space science. From 26 proposals submitted, ESA has now approved a new mission to be launched in 2017. Though small in scale this mission is big on ambition: to search for nearby habitable planets. (...)

Across The Universe : Disco Sun: X-Class Flare Creates Strobe-Light Effect

Disco Sun: X-Class Flare Creates Strobe-Light Effect:

An active region just turning into view on the left side of the Sun has emitted three large flares since Saturday: an M9, an M5 and early today blasted out an X1.8 class flare. This flare occurred around 3:17 am UTC today (or 11:17 pm EDT on Oct. 22). The strobe-light-like effect visible in the video was created by the brightness of the flare and how the instruments on the Solar Dynamics Observatory responded to it. Phil Chamberlin, Deputy Project Scientist SDO told Universe Today that built in algorithms called ‘active exposure control’ compensate for the extra light coming in from a flare. It doesn’t always result in the strobe or fluttering effect, but the algorithms create shorter exposure time, and thus a dimmer, but still scientifically useful view of the entire Sun. The algorithms go into effect whenever there is an M class or higher flare.

Across The Universe : Ancient Quasar Shines Brightly, But All the Galaxy’s Stars Are Missing

Ancient Quasar Shines Brightly, But All the Galaxy’s Stars Are Missing:
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Hubble Space Telescope image of J1148+5251. Credit: NASA/ESA/M. Mechtley, R. Windhorst, Arizona State University
Quasars have been the best and most easily observed beacons for astronomers to probe the distant Universe, and one of the most distant and brightest quasars is providing a bit of a surprise. Astronomers studying a distant galaxy, dubbed J1148+5251 and which contains a bright quasar, are seeing only the quasar and not the host galaxy itself. It has been thought that the quasar has been feeding on a handful of stars every year in order to bulk up to its size of three billion solar masses over just a few hundred million years. But where are all the stars?

Across The Universe : Incredible Astrophoto Mosaic: Via Láctea in Alentejo

Incredible Astrophoto Mosaic: Via Láctea in Alentejo:
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This astounding mosaic of the Milky Way is comprised of 104 separate images and was taken in Elvas, Alentejo, Portugal by astrophotographer Miguel Claro. Visible is the arm of our galaxy the Milky Way, as well as many constellations like Cygnus, Cassiopeia, Sagittarius, and Scorpius. Look closely and find deep sky objects like Andromeda Galaxy. The image was taken in a portion of the Great Lake Alqueva Dark Sky Reserve in Portugal, a site designated as a “Starlight Tourism Destination.” The region has good atmospheric conditions for stargazing for more than 250 nights of the year, and special lodging is available just for astro-tourists.
This mosaic was taken on July 24, 2012, with a Canon 50D, 15 seg. a f/2.8, ISO 2000, Dist. Focal: 35 mm

Across The Universe : Zoom Through 84 Million Stars in Gigantic New 9-Gigapixel Image

Zoom Through 84 Million Stars in Gigantic New 9-Gigapixel Image:
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The image above is a portion of a new gigantic nine-gigapixel image from the VISTA infrared survey telescope at ESO’s Paranal Observatory of the central portion of the Milky Way Galaxy. The resolution of this image is so great, that if it was printed out in the resolution of a typical book, it would be 9 meters long and 7 meters tall! Click on the image to have access to an interactive, zoomable view of the more than 84 million stars that astronomers have now catalogued from this image. The huge dataset contains more than ten times more stars than previous studies and astronomers say it is a major step forward for the understanding of our home galaxy.
“By observing in detail the myriads of stars surrounding the centre of the Milky Way we can learn a lot more about the formation and evolution of not only our galaxy, but also spiral galaxies in general,” said Roberto Saito from Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Universidad de Valparaíso, lead author of the study.

Across The Universe Astronomers Find Ultimate Oxymoron: A Small Supermassive Black Hole

Astronomers Find Ultimate Oxymoron: A Small Supermassive Black Hole:
Across The Universe
There’s jumbo shrimp and accurate rumors; now there’s even a mini supermassive black hole. Astronomers have identified the smallest supermassive black hole ever observed, and while it’s considered a shrimp as far as supermassive black holes go, this guy is still pretty big: the mass of the black hole in galaxy NGC 4178 is estimated to be about 200,000 times the mass of our Sun. But it was a surprise that this galaxy had a black hole at all.

Across The Universe : Exploded Rocket Fragments Could Endanger ISS and Future Missions

Exploded Rocket Fragments Could Endanger ISS and Future Missions:
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The International Space Station will have to look out for new debris from an exploded Russian rocket (NASA image)
Traveling through low-Earth orbit just got a little more dangerous; a drifting Russian Breeze M (Briz-M) rocket stage that failed to execute its final burns back on August 6 has recently exploded, sending hundreds of shattered fragments out into orbit.
Russia and the U.S. Defense Department (JFCC-Space) have stated that they are currently tracking 500 pieces of debris from the disintegrated Breeze M, although some sources are saying there are likely much more than that.

Across The Universe : Satellite Views: Will Hurricane Sandy Turn into ‘Frankenstorm’?

Satellite Views: Will Hurricane Sandy Turn into ‘Frankenstorm’?:
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Hurricane Sandy made landfall on Cuba early Thursday Oct. 25, 2012 as strong Category 2. Credit: NOAA/National Hurricane Center
Meteorologists keeping an eye on Hurricane Sandy say the storm threatens to move up along the east coast of the United States and could mix with a wintery storm coming from the west to form a monster storm that has been informally dubbed “Frankenstorm.” The hurricane could reach the US coast by this weekend and when the two storms collide, it could continue to pound the eastern seaboard well into the week of Halloween.

Across The Universe : Giant “Invisible” Vortex Still Remains on Saturn Following Huge Storm

Giant “Invisible” Vortex Still Remains on Saturn Following Huge Storm:
Across The Universe
In 2010, a small, bright white storm emerged on Saturn’s northern hemisphere. This storm grew until it wrapped around the planet in curly cloud structures, creating a colossal atmospheric disturbance that endured into the early part of 2012, becoming the largest storm seen on the planet since 1990. Being in orbit around the ringed planet, the Cassini spacecraft had a front row seat to watch the disturbance unfold, allowing planetary scientists an unprecedented look at this monster storm. While the storm was visible even to amateur astronomers on Earth, much of its activity took place beyond the reach of visible-light cameras and telescopes, astronomers say. Not only did huge “beacons” of hot air chase each other around the planet, but infrared observations show a giant oval vortex is still persisting as a side effect from the storm.

Across The Universe : Stirred, Not Shaken. Black Hole Antics Puff Up Whopper of a Galaxy

Stirred, Not Shaken. Black Hole Antics Puff Up Whopper of a Galaxy:
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Its massive gravitational field warping space, the huge elliptical galaxy A2261-BCG, seems to have a diffuse halo of stars instead of a bright central galactic core. Image credit: NASA/ESA Hubble
Bloated far beyond the size of normal galaxies, one or more black holes may have puffed up an elliptical galaxy to a whopping size, according to astronomers. To their surprise, however, the black holes are missing.
Normally, scientists measure a concentrated peak of light surrounding the central black hole surrounded by a fuzzy halo of stars. Instead, astronomers, using NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope, find that the galaxy, known as A2261-BCG, is just a diffuse, bloated foggy patch of light. The intensity of starlight remains even across the entire galaxy. Past Hubble observations show supermassive black holes, each weighing billions of times more than our Sun, reside at the cores of nearly all galaxies.

Across The Universe : On Again, Off Again Exoplanet Fomalhaut b is Back from the Dead

On Again, Off Again Exoplanet Fomalhaut b is Back from the Dead:
Across The Universe
This visible-light image from the Hubble Space Telescope shows the vicinity of the star Fomalhaut, including the location of its dust ring and disputed planet, Fomalhaut b. A coronagraphic mask helped dim the star’s brightness. This view combines two 2006 observations that were taken with masks of different sizes (1.8 and 3 arcseconds). (Credit: NASA/ESA/T. Currie, U. Toronto)
Just in time for Halloween, astronomers are bringing an extrasolar planet back from the dead. Another look at the nearby star Fomalhaut reveals that a planet, named Fomalhaut b, is actually, really there, refuting a previous claim against its existence. In 2008, it was announced that a large, Saturn mass planet shepherded a large dust ring and was spotted in visual images from Hubble, and was said to be the first exoplanet ever directly imaged in visible light around another star. But in late 2011 infrared observations called the previous detections into question. A new analysis of data from Hubble, however, brings the planet conclusion back to life.
It’s like a zombie planet that just won’t die.

Across The Universe : Deflecting Incoming Asteroids with Paintballs

Deflecting Incoming Asteroids with Paintballs:
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An artist’s rendering of the asteroid Apophis. Credit: ESA
What would be a way to deflect asteroid Apophis if it gets a little too close for comfort in 2029 or 2036? Pew-pew it with 5 tons of white paintballs. Not only would the multiple mini impacts bump the asteroid off course, but the white paint would cover the surface and reflect more sunlight, and over time, the bouncing of photons off its surface could create enough of a force to push the asteroid off its course.

Across The Universe : Astrophoto: Polaris and Circumpolar Rotation in 30 Minutes

Astrophoto: Polaris and Circumpolar Rotation in 30 Minutes:

This recent image from astrophotographer John Chumack shows the Earth’s natural rotation in just 30 minutes of exposure time. Polaris, the North Star, is the stationary point over a Sequoia tree in Warrenton, Virginia, USA. “The rotational speed of the Earth at the equator is about 1,038 miles per hour,” John writes. “At mid-latitudes, the speed of the Earth’s rotation decreases to 700 – 900 miles per hour. You can notice star trails “rotation” in your photographs even in as little as 1 minute exposures. I notice star trailing in about 30 seconds with a 17mm wide angle lens. But the longer you leave the shutter open the more trailing and the more dramatic the effect!”
John used a Canon Rebel Xsi, ISO 400, .17mm Lens at F4.
See more of his work at his website, Galactic Images.
Want to get your astrophoto featured on Universe Today? Join our Flickr group or send us your images by email (this means you’re giving us permission to post them). Please explain what’s in the picture, when you took it, the equipment you used, etc.

Wednesday, October 10, 2012




Angel  Angels are mythical beings often depicted as messengers of God in the Hebrew and Christian Bibles and the Quran. The English word angel is derived from the Greek, a translation of (mal'akh) in the Hebrew Bible (Tanakh); a similar term, (Malaikah), is used in the Qur'an. The Hebrew and Greek words originally mean messenger, and depending on the context may refer either to a human messenger (possibly a prophet or priest, such as Malachi, "my messenger", but also for more mundane characters, as in the Greek superscription that the Book of Malachi was written "by the hand of his messenger" or to a supernatural messenger, such as the "Mal'akh YHWH," who (depending on interpretation) is either a messenger from God, an aspect of God (such as the Logos), or God Himself as the messenger (the "theophanic angel.") The term "angel" has also been expanded to various notions of spiritual beings found in many other religious traditions. Other roles of angels include protecting and guiding human beings, and carrying out God's tasks. The theological study of angels is known as angelology. In art, angels are often depicted with wings; perhaps reflecting the descriptions in Revelation 4:6–8—of the Four Living Creatures (Greek:) and the descriptions in the Hebrew Bible—of cherubim and seraphim (the chayot in Ezekiel's Merkabah vision and the Seraphim of Isaiah). However, while cherubim and seraphim have wings in the Bible, no angel is mentioned as having wings.  Contents    1 Etymology 2 Philosophy 3 Judaism 4 Christianity 4.1 Interaction with angels 4.2 Iconography 4.3 Latter Day Saints 5 Islam 6 Bahá'í Faith 7 Non-Abrahamic traditions 7.1 Zoroastrianism 7.2 Indian religions 7.2.1 Sikhism 7.3 Brahma Kumaris 8 New religious movements and occultism 8.1 Theosophy 9 Contemporary belief in angels 10 See also 11 References 12 Further reading   Etymology Three angels hosted by Abraham, Ludovico Carracci (1555–1619), Bologna, Pinacoteca Nazionale. The word angel in English is a fusion of the Old English word engel (with a hard g) and the Old French angele. Both derive from the Latin angelus which in turn is the romanization of the ancient Greek (angelos), "messenger", which is related to the Greek verb (angello), meaning "bear a message, announce, bring news of" etc. The earliest form of the word is the Mycenaean a-ke-ro attested in Linear B syllabic script.  Philosophy Philosophically, angels are "pure contingent spirits." Philo of Alexandria identifies the angel with the Logos as far as the angel is the immaterial voice of God. The angel is something different than God Himself, but is conceived just as a God's instrument. According to Aristotle, just as there is a First Mover, so, too, must there be spiritual secondary movers. Thomas Aquinas (13th century) expands upon this in his Summa contra Gentiles and Summa Theologica.  Judaism Main article: Angel (Judaism) The Bible uses the terms (mal'akh Elohim; messenger of God), (mal'akh YHWH; messenger of the Lord), (b'nai Elohim; sons of God) and (ha-qodeshim; the holy ones) to refer to beings traditionally interpreted as angels. Later texts use other terms, such as (ha'elyoneem; the upper ones). Scholar Michael D. Coogan notes that it is only in the late books that the terms "come to mean the benevolent semidivine beings familiar from later mythology and art." Daniel is the first biblical figure to refer to individual angels by name, mentioning Gabriel (God's primary messenger) in Daniel 9:21 and Michael (the holy fighter) in Daniel 10:13. These angels are part of Daniel's apocalyptic visions and are an important part of all apocalyptic literature. Coogan explains the development of this concept of angels: "In the postexilic period, with the development of explicit monotheism, these divine beings—the 'sons of God' who were members of the divine council—were in effect demoted to what are now known as 'angels', understood as beings created by God, but immortal and thus superior to humans." This conception of angels is best understood in contrast to demons and is often thought to be "influenced by the ancient Persian religious tradition of Zoroastrianism, which viewed the world as a battleground between forces of good and forces of evil, between light and darkness." One of these "sons of God" is "the satan", a figure depicted in (among other places) the Book of Job. In post-Biblical Judaism, certain angels took on particular significance and developed unique personalities and roles. Though these archangels were believed to rank among the heavenly host, no systematic hierarchy ever developed. Metatron is considered one of the highest of the angels in Merkabah and Kabbalist mysticism and often serves as a scribe; he is briefly mentioned in the Talmud and figures prominently in Merkabah mystical texts. Michael, who serves as a warrior and advocate for Israel (Daniel 10:13), is looked upon particularly fondly. Gabriel is mentioned in the Book of Daniel (Daniel 8:15–17), the Book of Tobit, and briefly in the Talmud, as well as in many Merkabah mystical texts. There is no evidence in Judaism for the worship of angels, but there is evidence for the invocation and sometimes even conjuration of angels. Medieval Jewish philosopher Maimonides explained his view of angels in his Guide for the Perplexed II:4 and II:6: ...This leads Aristotle in turn to the demonstrated fact that God, glory and majesty to Him, does not do things by direct contact. God burns things by means of fire; fire is moved by the motion of the sphere; the sphere is moved by means of a disembodied intellect, these intellects being the 'angels which are near to Him', through whose mediation the spheres planets move... thus totally disembodied minds exist which emanate from God and are the intermediaries between God and all the bodies objects here in this world.   According to Kabalah, there are four worlds and our world is the last world: the world of action (Assiyah). Angels exist in the worlds above as a 'task' of God. They are an extension of God to produce effects in this world. After an angel has completed its task, it ceases to exist. The angel is in effect the task. This is derived from the book of Genesis when Abraham meets with three angels and Lot meets with two. The task of one of the angels was to inform Abraham of his coming child. The other two were to save Lot and to destroy Sodom and Gomorrah. Famous angels and their tasks: Malachim (translation: messengers), general word for angel Michael (translation: who is like God?), performs acts of justice and power Gabriel (translation: the strength of God), performs God's kindness Raphael (translation: God Heals), God's healing force Uriel (translation: God is my light), leads us to destiny Seraphim (translation: the burning ones), sing and praise God Malach HaMavet (translation: the angel of death) Satan (translation: the adversary), brings people's sins before them in the heavenly court Chayot HaKodesh (translation: living beings) Ophanim (translation: arbits) Guardians of the Throne of God  Christianity The Archangel Michael wears a late Roman military cloak and cuirass in this 17th century depiction by Guido Reni Early Christians inherited Jewish understandings of angels, which in turn may have been partly inherited from the Egyptians. In the early stage, the Christian concept of an angel characterized the angel as a messenger of God. Angels are creatures of good, spirits of love, and messengers of the savior Jesus Christ. Later came identification of individual angelic messengers: Gabriel, Michael, Raphael, Uriel, and Satan/Lucifer. Then, in the space of little more than two centuries (from the third to the fifth) the image of angels took on definite characteristics both in theology and in art. By the late fourth century, the Church Fathers agreed that there were different categories of angels, with appropriate missions and activities assigned to them. Some theologians had proposed that Jesus was not divine but on the level of immaterial beings subordinate to the Trinity. The resolution of this Trinitarian dispute included the development of doctrine about angels. The angels are represented throughout the Christian Bible as a body of spiritual beings intermediate between God and men: "You have made him (man) a little less than the angels..." (Psalms 8:4-5). Some Christians believe that angels are created beings, and use the following passage as evidence: "praise ye Him, all His angels: praise ye Him, all His hosts... for He spoke and they were made. He commanded and they were created..." (Psalms 148:2-5; Colossians 1:16). The Fourth Lateran Council (1215) declared that the angels were created beings. The Council's decree Firmiter credimus (issued against the Albigenses) declared both that angels were created and that men were created after them. The First Vatican Council (1869) repeated this declaration in Dei Filius, the "Dogmatic constitution on the Catholic faith". Of note is that the Bible describes the function of angels as "messengers" and does not indicate when the creation of angels occurred. Many Christians regard angels as asexual and not belonging to either gender as they interpret Matthew 22:30 in this way. Angels are on the other hand usually described as looking like male human beings. Their names are also masculine. And although angels have greater knowledge than men, they are not omniscient, as Matthew 24:36 points out.  Interaction with angels An angel comforting Jesus, by Carl Heinrich Bloch, 1865-1879. The New Testament includes many of interactions and conversations between angels and humans. For instance, three separate cases of angelic interaction deal with the births of John the Baptist and Jesus Christ. In Luke 1:11, an angel appears to Zechariah to inform him that he will have a child despite his old age, thus proclaiming the birth of John the Baptist And in Luke 1:26 the archangel Gabriel visits the Virgin Mary in the Annunciation to foretell the birth of Jesus Christ. Angels then proclaim the birth of Jesus in the Adoration of the shepherds in Luke 2:10. Angels also appear later in the New Testament. In Luke 22:43 an angel comforts Jesus Christ during the Agony in the Garden. In Matthew 28:5 an angel speaks at the empty tomb, following the Resurrection of Jesus and the rolling back of the stone by angels. Hebrews 13:2 reminds the reader that they may "entertain angels unaware". Since the completion of the New Testament, the Christian tradition has continued to include a number of reported interactions with angels. For instance, in 1851 Pope Pius IX approved the Chaplet of Saint Michael based on the 1751 private revelation from archangel Michael to the Carmelite nun Antonia d'Astonac. And Pope John Paul II emphasized the role of angels in Catholic teachings in his 1986 address titled "Angels Participate In History Of Salvation", in which he suggested that modern mentality should come to see the importance of angels. As recently as the 20th century, visionaries and mystics have reported interactions with, and indeed dictations from, angels. For instance, the bed-ridden Italian writer and mystic Maria Valtorta wrote The Book of Azariah based on "dictations" that she directly attributed to her guardian angel Azariah, discussing the Roman Missal used for Sunday Mass in 1946 and 1947.  Iconography 12th-century icon of the Archangels Michael and Gabriel wearing the loros of the Imperial guards. The earliest known Christian image of an angel—in the Cubicolo dell'Annunziazione in the Catacomb of Priscilla (mid-third century)—is without wings. In that same period, representations of angels on sarcophagi, lamps and reliquaries also show them without wings, as for example the angel in the Sacrifice of Isaac scene in the Sarcophagus of Junius Bassus (although the side view of the Sarcophagus shows winged angelic figures). The earliest known representation of angels with wings is on the "Prince's Sarcophagus", discovered in the 1930s at Sarigüzel, near Istanbul, and attributed to the time of Theodosius I (379-395). From that period on, Christian art has represented angels mostly with wings, as in the cycle of mosaics in the Basilica of Saint Mary Major (432–440). Four- and six-winged angels, drawn from the higher grades of angels (especially cherubim and seraphim) and often showing only their faces and wings, are derived from Persian art and are usually shown only in heavenly contexts, as opposed to performing tasks on earth. They often appear in the pendentives of church domes or semi-domes. Prior of the Judeo-Christian tradition in the Greek world, the Greek goddess Nike and the god Eros were also depicted in human-like form with wings. Saint John Chrysostom explained the significance of angels' wings: "They manifest a nature's sublimity. That is why Gabriel is represented with wings. Not that angels have wings, but that you may know that they leave the heights and the most elevated dwelling to approach human nature. Accordingly, the wings attributed to these powers have no other meaning than to indicate the sublimity of their nature."  One of Melozzo's famous angels from the Basilica dei Santi Apostoli, now in the sacristy of St. Peter's Basilica In terms of their clothing, angels, especially the Archangel Michael, were depicted as military-style agents of God and came to be shown wearing Late Antique military uniform. This uniform could be the normal military dress, with a tunic to about the knees, an armour breastplate and pteruges, but was often the specific dress of the bodyguard of the Byzantine Emperor, with a long tunic and the loros, the long gold and jewelled pallium restricted to the Imperial family and their closest guards. The basic military dress was shown in Western art into the Baroque period and beyond (see Reni picture above), and up to the present day in Eastern Orthodox icons. Other angels came to be conventionally depicted in long robes, and in the later Middle Ages they often wear the vestments of a deacon, a cope over a dalmatic; this costume was used especially for Gabriel in Annunciation scenes—for example the Annunciation in Washington by Jan van Eyck.  Latter Day Saints Bern Switzerland Temple statue of the Angel Moroni Adherents of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (generally referred to as "Mormons") view angels as the messengers of God. They are sent to mankind to deliver messages, minister to humanity, teach doctrines of salvation, call mankind to repentance, give priesthood keys, save individuals in perilous times, and guide humankind. Latter Day Saints believe that angels are the spirits of humans who are deceased or who have yet to be born, and accordingly Joseph Smith taught that "there are no angels who minister to this earth but those that do belong or have belonged to it." As such, Latter Day Saints also believe that Adam (the first man) is now the archangel Michael, and that Gabriel lived on the earth as Noah. Likewise the Angel Moroni first lived in a pre-Columbian American civilization as the 5th-century prophet-warrior named Moroni. Joseph Smith, Jr. described his first angelic encounter thus: While I was thus in the act of calling upon God, I discovered a light appearing in my room, which continued to increase until the room was lighter than at noonday, when immediately a personage appeared at my bedside, standing in the air, for his feet did not touch the floor.  He had on a loose robe of most exquisite whiteness. It was a whiteness beyond anything earthly I had ever seen; nor do I believe that any earthly thing could be made to appear so exceedingly white and brilliant....  Not only was his robe exceedingly white, but his whole person was glorious beyond description, and his countenance truly like lightning. The room was exceedingly light, but not so very bright as immediately around his person. When I first looked upon him, I was afraid; but the fear soon left me.  Most angelic visitations in the early Latter Day Saint movement were witnessed by Joseph Smith and Oliver Cowdery, who both claimed (prior to the establishment of the Church in 1830) to have been visited by the prophet Moroni, John the Baptist, and the Apostles Peter, James, and John. Later, at the dedication of the Kirtland Temple, Smith and Sidney Rigdon claimed to have been visited by Jesus, and subsequently by Moses, Elias, and Elijah. Angels are typically depicted in Mormon art as having no wings based on a quote from Joseph Smith ("An angel of God never has wings"). People who claimed to have received a visit by an angel include the other two of the Three Witnesses: David Whitmer and Martin Harris. Many other Latter Day Saints, both in the early and modern church, have claimed to have seen angels, though Smith posited that, except in extenuating circumstances such as the restoration, mortals teach mortals, spirits teach spirits and resurrected beings teach other resurrected beings.  Islam Main article: Islamic view of angels Angels (Arabic: Malaikah; Turkish: Melek) are mentioned many times in the Qur'an and Hadith. Islam is clear on the nature of angels in that they are messengers of God. They have no free will, and can do only what God orders them to do. An example of a task they carry out is that of testing individuals by granting them abundant wealth and curing their illness. Believing in angels is one of the six Articles of Faith in Islam.  Bahá'í Faith In his Book of Certitude Bahá’u’lláh, founder of the Bahá’í Faith, describes angels as people who ‘have consumed, with the fire of the love of God, all human traits and limitations’, and have ‘clothed themselves’ with angelic attributes and have become ‘endowed with the attributes of the spiritual’. 'Abdu’l-Bahá describes angels as the ‘confirmations of God and His celestial powers’ and as ‘blessed beings who have severed all ties with this nether world’ and ‘been released from the chains of self’, and ‘revealers of God’s abounding grace’. The Bahá’í writings also refer to the Concourse on High, an angelic host, and the Maid of Heaven of Bahá’u’lláh's vision.  Non-Abrahamic traditions "Angel" is sometimes used as a translation of related concepts in non-Abrahamic traditions.  Zoroastrianism Main article: Zoroastrian angelology In Zoroastrianism there are different angel-like figures. For example, each person has one guardian angel, called Fravashi. They patronize human beings and other creatures, and also manifest God’s energy. The Amesha Spentas have often been regarded as angels, although there is no direct reference to them conveying messages, but are rather emanations of Ahura Mazda ("Wise Lord", God); they initially appear in an abstract fashion and then later became personalized, associated with diverse aspects of the divine creation.  Indian religions In Hinduism, the term deva is sometimes translated by orientalists(erroneously) as "angel" (besides "god" or "deity"). But essentially deva is not an angel. Instead deva is the embodiment of a natural element with explicit manifestation in physical realms.  Sikhism This section improperly uses one or more religious texts as primary sources without referring to secondary sources that critically analyze them. Please help improve this article by adding references to reliable secondary sources. In Sikhism, the references to angelic or divine deities is often objected as the religion focuses on the liberation of the soul and ultimately joining with Waheguru. However, in early scriptures written by Guru Nanak Dev Ji indicate specific heavenly deities to help in the judgment of the soul. Azrael (as Azraa-eel) is named as the angel of death in the Guru Granth Sahib, the holy scripture and the final Guru of the Sikhs. In So Dar and Raag Asa Sat Guru Nanak mentions clearly two beings Chitar and Gupat who record the deeds of men. These beings are Angels assigned with this Divine task by the Creator. Chitar records the deeds that are visible to all and Gupat records that which is hidden in thought or secret action. Their names themselves allude to the tasks which the All Mighty has bestowed upon them. The celestial beings are often seen at the gates of heaven, dressed in the most adorned and decorated gowns, holding the records on the actions and feelings of the soul in the line for judgement.  Brahma Kumaris In Brahma Kumaris, it is taught that every member becomes angel of light (faristha in Hindi) and that founder Dada Lekhraj has already become perfect man and angel Brahma through practise of Raja Yoga.  New religious movements and occultism  Theosophy In the teachings of Theosophy, Devas are regarded as living either in the atmospheres of the planets of the solar system (Planetary Angels) or inside the Sun (Solar Angels) (presumably other planetary systems and stars have their own angels) and they help to guide the operation of the processes of nature such as the process of evolution and the growth of plants; their appearance is reputedly like colored flames about the size of a human. It is believed by Theosophists that devas can be observed when the third eye is activated. Some (but not most) devas originally incarnated as human beings. It is believed by Theosophists that nature spirits, elementals (gnomes, undines, sylphs, and salamanders), and fairies can be also be observed when the third eye is activated. It is maintained by Theosophists that these less evolutionarily developed beings have never been previously incarnated as humans; they are regarded as being on a separate line of spiritual evolution called the “deva evolution”; eventually, as their souls advance as they reincarnate, it is believed they will incarnate as devas. It is asserted by Theosophists that all of the above mentioned beings possess etheric bodies that are composed of etheric matter, a type of matter finer and more pure that is composed of smaller particles than ordinary physical plane matter.  Contemporary belief in angels Seal of Sant'Angelo (rione of Rome) A 2002 study based on interviews with 350 people, mainly in the UK, who said they have had an experience of an angel, describes several types of such experiences: visions, sometimes with multiple witnesses present; auditions, e.g. to convey a warning; a sense of being touched, pushed, or lifted, typically to avert a dangerous situation; and pleasant fragrance, generally in the context of somebody's death. In the visual experiences, the angels described appear in various forms, either the "classical" one (human countenance with wings), in the form of extraordinarily beautiful or radiant human beings, or as beings of light. In the US, a 2008 survey by Baylor University's Institute for Studies of Religion, published by TIME Magazine, which polled 1,700 respondents, found that 55 percent of Americans, including one in five of those who say they are not religious, believe that they have been protected by a guardian angel during their life. An August 2007 Pew poll found that 68 percent of Americans believe that "angels and demons are active in the world", and according to four different polls conducted in 2009, a greater percentage of Americans believe in angels (55%) than those who believe in global warming (36%). According to the Gallup Youth Survey, in a Teen Belief in the Supernatural poll in 1994, 76% of 508 teenagers (aged 13–17) believe in angels, a greater percentage than those who believe in astrology, ESP, ghosts, witchcraft, clairvoyance, Bigfoot, and vampires. In 1978, 64% of American young people believed in angels; in 1984, 69% of teenagers believed in angels; and by 1994, that number grew to 76%, while belief in other supernatural concepts, such as the Loch Ness monster and ESP, have declined. In 1992, 80% of 502 surveyed teenage girls believe in angels, and 81% of Catholic teens and 82% of regular church attendees harbored beliefs in angels. According to another set of Gallup polls, designated towards all Americans, in 1994, 72% of Americans said they believed in angels, while in 2004, 78% of the surveyed Americans indicated belief in angels, with the percentage of Americans that did not believe in angels dropping from 15% to 10%, and the percentage of Americans that were "not sure" dropping from 13% to 11%. In Canada, a 2008 survey of over 1000 Canadians found 67 percent believe in angels.  See also: Apsara Archangel Dakini Ethereal being Fallen angel Gandharva Guardian angel Hierarchy of angels List of films about angels Nephilim Shoulder angel Sons of God Watcher or Grigori   References   a b "," Francis Brown, S.R. Driver, and Charles A. Briggs, eds.: A Hebrew and English Lexicon of the Old Testament , p. 521.  Pope, Hugh. "Angels." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 1. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1907. accessed 20 Oct. 2010  Frederick Copleston, A History of Philosophy, Volume 1, Continuum, 2003, p. 460.  Louis Goldberg Baker's Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology: Angel of the Lord "The functions of the angel of the Lord in the Old Testament prefigure the reconciling ministry of Jesus. In the New Testament, there is no mention of the angel of the Lord; the Messiah himself is this person."  According also to Augustine of Hippo's Enarrationes in Psalmos (Latin), 103, I, 15  "Angel," The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia James Orr, editor, 1915 edition.  , Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus project  Henry George Liddell; Robert Scott 1940, A Greek-English Lexicon; Machine readable text (Trustees of Tufts University, Oxford) online, retrieved 12 February 2011.  a-ke-ro, Palaeolexicon (Word study tool of ancient languages)  Mycenaean (Linear b) - English Glossaryy  Benedict Ashley. The Way toward Wisdom. pp. 114ff. ASIN 0268020280. OCLC 609421317.  Copleston, Frederick Charles (2003). A history of philosophy, Volume 1. Continuum International Publishing Group, p. 460. ISBN 0826468950  Aristotle. Metaphysics. 1072a ff..  Aristotle. Metaphysics. 1073a13 ff..  Thomas Aquinas. Commentary on Metaphysics. 12. Lecture 9.  Thomas Aquinas. "46". Summa contra Gentiles. 2.  Thomas Aquinas. Summa Theologica. Treatise on Angels.  a b c d Coogan, Michael D.; A Brief Introduction to the Old Testament (Oxford University Press, 2009)  Jewish Encyclopedia, accessed Feb. 15, 2008  Sanhedrin 38b and Avodah Zerah 3b.  cf. Sanhedrin 95b  Angels, Jewish Encyclopedia, 1914  The Jewish Encyclopedia Retrieved January 31, 2010  The Jewish Encyclopedia, retrieved January 31, 2010  Sizing Up Satan in the Bible, retrieved July 4, 2011  The development of Jewish ideas of angels : Egyptian and Hellenistic connections, ca. 600 BCE to ca. 200 CE Evans, Annette Henrietta Margaretha   Proverbio(2007), pp. 25-38; cf. summary in Libreria Hoepli  Proverbio(2007), pp. 29-38; cf. summary in Libreria Hoepli and review in La Civiltà Cattolica, 3795-3796 (2–16 August 2008), pp. 327-328.  BibleGateway, Matthew 24:36  BibleGateway, Luke 1:11  BibleGateway, Luke 1:26  BibleGateway, Luke 2:10  BibleGateway, Luke 22:43  BibleGateway, Matthew 28:5  BibleGateway, Hebrews 13:2  Ann Ball, 2003 Encyclopedia of Catholic Devotions and Practices ISBN 087973910X page 123  Angels Participate In History Of Salvation, Vatican website  Maria Valtorta 1972, The Book of Azariah ISBN 8879870130  Proverbio(2007), pp. 81-89; cf. review in La Civiltà Cattolica, 3795-3796 (2–16 August 2008), pp. 327-328.  Proverbio(2007) p. 66  Proverbio(2007), pp. 90–95; cf. review in La Civiltà Cattolica, 3795–3796 (2–16 August 2008), pp. 327–328.  Proverbio(2007) p. 34  "God's messengers, those individuals whom he sends (often from his personal presence in the eternal worlds), to deliver his messages (Luke 1:11–38); to minister to his children (Acts 10:1–8, Acts 10:30–32); to teach them the doctrines of salvation (Mosiah 3); to call them to repentance (Moro. 7:31); to give them priesthood and keys (D. & C. 13; 128:20–21); to save them in perilous circumstances (Nehemiah 3:29–31; Daniel 6:22); to guide them in the performance of his work (Genesis 24:7); to gather his elect in the last days (Matthew 24:31); to perform all needful things relative to his work (Moro. 7:29–33)—such messengers are called angels.", McConkie, Bruce R.. "Angels". Angels. LightPlanet. Retrieved 2008-10-27;  Deseret (1966) p.36.  a b LDS Bible Dictionary-Angels  D&C 130:5  "Chapter 6: The Fall of Adam and Eve," Gospel Principles, 31, see also the entry for Adam in “Glossary,” Gospel Principles, 376  D&C 107:24  Joseph Smith History 1:30-33  D&C 110  History of the Church, 3:392  The Fulness of Times  Sahih al-Bukhari, 4:56:670  Smith, Peter (2000). "angels". A concise encyclopedia of the Bahá'í Faith. Oxford: Oneworld Publications. pp. 38–39. ISBN 1-85168-184-1.  Lewis, James R., Oliver, Evelyn Dorothy, Sisung Kelle S. (Editor) (1996), Angels A to Z, Entry: Zoroastrianism, pp. 425-427, Visible Ink Press, ISBN 0-7876-0652-9  Darmesteter, James (1880)(translator), The Zend Avesta, Part I: Sacred Books of the East, Vol. 4, pp. lx-lxxii, Oxford University Press, 1880, at  Encyclopaedia Britannica  Section 7, part 165 (Raag Gauree), and section 25, part 31 (Raag Maaroo). Hosted on the Internet Sacred Text Archive  Shri Guru Granth Sahib: So Dar  Shri Guru Granth Sahib: Raag Aasaa  Basava Journal, Volume 19. Basava Samiti, 1994 (Bangalore, India).  Peace & purity: the story of the Brahma Kumaris : a spiritual revolution By Liz Hodgkinson  The Descent of incorporeal God into the human body of Brahma: a brief biographical account. Jagdish Chander 1984  Illustrations on raja yoga: the science for attaining purity, peace, and bliss. Jagdish Chander 1975  Hodson, Geoffrey, Kingdom of the Gods ISBN 0-7661-8134-0—Has color pictures of what Devas supposedly look like when observed by the third eye—their appearance is reputedly like colored flames about the size of a human. Paintings of some of the devas claimed to have been seen by Hodson from his book "Kingdom of the Gods":  Eskild Tjalve’s paintings of devas, nature spirits, elementals and fairies:  a b Powell, A.E. The Solar System London:1930 The Theosophical Publishing House (A Complete Outline of the Theosophical Scheme of Evolution) See "Lifewave" chart (refer to index)  Emma Heathcote-James (2002): Seeing Angels. London: John Blake Publishing.  Guardian Angels Are Here, Say Most Americans TIME Retrieved August 25, 2010  Half of Americans believe in angels ABC News  Harris, Dan (2008-09-18). "Most Americans Believe in Guardian Angels: More Than Half of Americans Say Guardian Angels Watch Over Us". ABC News.  More Americans believe in angels than global warming  More Americans believe in angels than humans’ role in global warming The Raw Story  Malcovitz, Hal; George Gallup (Introduction) (2005). The Gallup Youth Survey: Teens and the Supernatural and Paranormal. Mason Crest Publishers. ISBN 1-59084-876-4.  Close Encounters of the Celestial Kind  Americans More Likely to Believe in God than the Devil  Angels and Demons in Christianity  News Service, Canwest (2008-12-23). "Believe in angels? You're not alone". ABC News.   Further reading  Proverbio, Cecilia (2007). La figura dell'angelo nella civiltà paleocristiana. Assisi, Italy: Editrice Tau. ISBN 8887472696. Cheyne, James Kelly (ed.) (1899). Angel. Encyclopædia Biblica. New York, Macmillan. Driver, Samuel Rolles (Ed.) (1901) The book of Daniel. Cambridge UP. Davidson, A. B. (1898). "Angel". In James Hastings. A Dictionary of the Bible. I. pp. pages 93–97. Oosterzee, Johannes Jacobus van. Christian dogmatics: a text-book for academical instruction and private study. Trans. John Watson Watson and Maurice J. Evans. (1874) New York, Scribner, Armstrong. Smith, George Adam (1898) The book of the twelve prophets, commonly called the minor. London, Hodder and Stoughton. Bamberger, Bernard Jacob, (March 15, 2006). Fallen Angels: Soldiers of Satan's Realm. Jewish Publication Society of America. ISBN 0-8276-0797-0 Bennett, William Henry (1911). "Angel". In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. Briggs, Constance Victoria, 1997. The Encyclopedia of Angels : An A-to-Z Guide with Nearly 4,000 Entries. Plume. ISBN 0-452-27921-6. Bunson, Matthew, (1996). Angels A to Z : A Who's Who of the Heavenly Host. Three Rivers Press. ISBN 0-517-88537-9. Cruz, Joan Carroll, OCDS, 1999. Angels and Devils. TAN Books and Publishers, Inc. ISBN 0-89555-638-3 Davidson, Gustav. A Dictionary of Angels: Including the Fallen Angels. Free Press. ISBN 0-02-907052-X Graham, Billy, 1994. Angels: God's Secret Agents. W Pub Group; Minibook edition. ISBN 0-8499-5074-0 Guiley, Rosemary, 1996. Encyclopedia of Angels. ISBN 0-8160-2988-1 Jastrow, Marcus, 1996, A dictionary of the Targumim, the Talmud Bavli and Yerushalmi, and the Midrashic literature compiled by Marcus Jastrow, PhD., Litt.D. with and index of Scriptural quotatons, Vol 1 & 2, The Judaica Press, New York Kainz, Howard P., "Active and Passive Potency" in Thomistic Angelology Martinus Nijhoff. ISBN 90-247-1295-5 Kreeft, Peter J. 1995. Angels and Demons: What Do We Really Know About Them? Ignatius Press. ISBN 0-89870-550-9 Lewis, James R. (1995). Angels A to Z. Visible Ink Press. ISBN 0-7876-0652-9 Melville, Francis, 2001. The Book of Angels: Turn to Your Angels for Guidance, Comfort, and Inspiration. Barron's Educational Series; 1st edition. ISBN 0-7641-5403-6 Ronner, John, 1993. Know Your Angels: The Angel Almanac With Biographies of 100 Prominent Angels in Legend & Folklore-And Much More! Mamre Press. ISBN 0-932945-40-6. Swedenborg, E. Heaven and its Wonders and Hell From Things Heard and Seen Swedenborg Foundation 1946 ISBN-10: 0554620561 (Detailed information on angels and their life in heaven) Swedenborg, E. Wisdom's Delight in Marriage ("Conjugial") Love: Followed by Insanity’s Pleasure in Promiscuous Love Swedenborg Foundation 1979 ISBN 0-87785-054-2 (Extensive review of angelic marriage)
Anjos Do Ceu

( via Moises e outros profetas )
Nota : Jesus Cristo mudou muito, isto !

1 - Não coma sangue, pois a vida de toda carne e´seu sangue, ele esta em sua alma ( Lv 17:14 )

2 - A vida de todo ser vivente, esta´ no sangue. A alma da carne esta´ no sangue ( Lv 17:11 )

3 - Não comam sangue. Não comam nenhuma carne com sangue. E´o sangue que faz a expiação pela alma.  ( Lv 17:11 )( Ez 33:25 ) ( Lv 17:13 )

4 - Nao comam gordura. Toda gordura pertence a DEUS. ( Lv 3:16 )

5 - Não façam Deuses de metal, nem os adorem ( Ex 34:17 )

6 - Não vistam roupas feitas de diferentes tecidos ( Lv 19:19 )

7 -  Não comam frutas que as arvores derem nos primeiros 3 anos. São Impuras! ( Lv 19:23 ) No quarto ano os frutos são de DEUS.( Lv 19:24 )  Voce pode come-los no quinto ano ! ( Lv 19:25 )

8 – Não procure ajuda dos que invocam espíritos dos mortos. Isto te deixa impuro ! ( Lv 19:31 )

9 -  Não procure ajuda dos que advinham o futuro. Isto te deixa impuro ! ( Lv 19: 31 )

10 – A pessoa que amaldiçoar Pai e Mae, sera morta ! ( Lv 20 :9 )

11 – Se um homem cometer adultério com a mulher de outro, ele e a mulher deverao ser mortos ( Lv 20:10 )

12 – Se um homem tiver relações com outro homem, os dois deverão ser mortos. ( Lv 20:13 ) 
13 – Sejam Santos, pois Eu, o SENHOR, Sou Santo ! ( Lv 20:26 )

15 – Não façam nenhum trabalho no Sabado. Este dia e´sagrado de descanso ! ( Lv 23:3 )

14 - Não façam nehuma imagem que sirva de ídolo. Deus e´contra adoração de ídolos (Dt 4:16)

15 – Não adorem outros Deuses. Adore somente DEUS. ( Dt 5:7 )

16 – Não use o nome de DEUs, sem o devido respeito que ELE merece ( Dt 5:11 )

17 – Respeite seu Pai e sua Mãe, para que você viva muito tempo. ( Dt 5:16 )

18 – Não mate ! ( Dt 5:17 )

19 – Não cometa adultério ( Dt 5:18 ) Não te deites com a mulher do teu proximo para te contaminares com ela ( Lv 18:20 ) Aquele que adulterar com a mulher do seu próximo, sejam mortos, o adultero e a adultera ( Lv 20:10 )

20 – Não roube ( Dt 5:19 )

21 – Não dê testemunho falso contra ninguém ( Dt 5: 20 )

22 – Não cobice a mulher de outro homem, nem nada do que ele tem ( Dt 5:21)

23 – Não comam carne de porco, pois tem o casco dividido mas não rumina. São impuros (Dt 14:8)

24 – Não comam carne de peixes que não tem barbatana e escamas. São impuros ( Dt 14:9 )

25 – Não coma aves impuras : urubu, águias, acores, falcões, corvo, avestruz, coruja, gaivotas, gaviões, mochos, íbis, gralhas ,pelicanos, abutres, cegonhas, garças, morcegos, ( Dt 14:12)

26 – Não comam insetos que voam. São impuros ! ( Dt 14:19)

27 – Não comam qualquer animal que tenha tido morte natural. ( Dt 14:21 )

28 – Não cozinhem um cabrito ou um carneirinho, no leite da sua própria mãe ( Dt 14:21 )

29 – Perdoem todas as dividas, de 7 em 7 anos ( Dt 15:1 )

30 – Não ofereça um sacrifício ao Senhor, um touro ou uma ovelha, que tenha defeitos. DEUS detesta isso ! ( Dt 17:1 )

31 – Não ofereçam seus filhos em sacrifício, queimando-os em altar ( Dt 18:10 )

32 – Não deixem que no meio do povo haja advinhos, pessoas que tiram sortes. Não tolerem feiticeiros, nem quem faz despachos, nem os que invocam os espíritos dos mortos. O Senhor DEUS detesta isso ! ( Dt 18-10, 11 )

33 – Todo primogênito e´de DEUS ! Dê ao seu filho primogênito ( o primeiro filho ), o direito ao dobro do que da aos outros filhos ( Nr 3:13 ) ( Dt 21:15 )

34 – Não deixem o corpo de um morto dependurado num poste de madeira durante a noite. Isso faz a maldição de DEUS cair sobre a terra ( Dt 21:22 )

35 – As mulheres não podem usar roupas de homem, nem os homens usar roupas de mulher. DEUS detesta as pessoas que fazem isso ! ( Dt 22:5 )

36 – Não pegue a mãe dos filhotes no ninho, leve os filhotes com você, para que corra tudo bem com você e você viva muitos anos ( Dt 22:6 )

37 – Não deixe de colocar uma grade de madeira em volta do terraço de sua casa. Assim você não será culpado se alguém cair dali e morrer ! ( Dt 22:8 )

38 – Não se case novamente com a mulher da qual se divorciou ! E´uma ofensa a DEUS (Dt 24 )

39 – Saibam todos que Eu, somente Eu sou DEUS. Não há outro DEUS alem de mim. Eu mato e Eu faco viver, Eu firo e Eu curo. Ninguem pode me impedir de fazer o que eu quero! (Dt 32:39 )

40 – Não andem atras de Deuses falsos. Eles não podem ajudar nem salvar vocês, pois não são verdadeiros. (  I Sm 12:21 )

41 – Não vos enganeis : nem impuros, nem idolatras, nem adulteros, nem efeminados, nem bêbados herdarao o Reino de DEUS. ( I Co 6:9-10 )

42 – Não se embriaguem, pois a bebida levara´ vocês a desgraca; mas encham-se do Espirito Santo de DEUS ( ( Ef 5:18 NTLH )

43 – Ai dos que passam o dia inteiro bebendo cerveja e vinho. Desde a madrugada ate tarde da noite, e ficam completamente bêbados. ( Is 5:11 )

44 – O Mundo Dos Mortos, como se fosse uma fera faminta, abrira sua boca faminta e engolira o povo e as autoridades, toda essa gente que vivem nas Farras e Orgias. ( 5:14 )  

45 – Não jurem para encobrir mentiras. DEUS detesta isso ! ( Jr 7:8 )

46 – Não façam benzeduras em pulseiras, nem preparem véus enfeitiçados. DEUS detesta Pulseiras enfeitiçadas ! ( Ez 13:18-20 )

47 – Não roubem, não mintam, não enganem uns aos outros. ( Lv 19:11)

48 – Não andes falando mal dos outros entre o seu povo. ( Lv 18:16 )

49 – Não coma sangue, não pratique, encantamentos nem advinhacoes.( Lv 19:26 )

50 – Homem ou mulher, sejam eles magos ou feiticeiros, sejam mortos. ( Lv 20:27 )

51 – Diferencie entre animais limpos e imundos, entre a ave limpa e a imunda. Não polua a sua alma por causa de qualquer coisa que se move sobre a terra, separadas como imundas (Lv 20:25

52 – Não tome por mulher: Viuva, Divorciada, Desonrada ou Prostituta. Tome por mulher somente uma virgem do seu povo. ( Lv 21:14 )

53 – Não cobre juros do dinheiro que você emprestar a um pobre ! Nem tire lucro dos alimentos que voce lhe vender ( Lv 25:36 ) ( Lv 25:37 )

54 -  Não comam os animais impuros que se arrastam pelo chão : lagartos, lagartixas, ratos, toupeiras e camaleões.( Lv 11:29-30 )

55 – Não comam insetos que andam e voam, pois são impuros : porem podem comer os insetos que tem pernas e que saltam : gafanhotos e grilos ( Lv 11:20-21-23 )

56 – Não comam qualquer animal que se arrasta pelo chão : São impuros. ( Lv 11-41 )

57 – Não comam camelos, coelhos selvagens ou lebres: pois esses animais ruminam mas não tem o casco dividido. Para vocês esses animais são impuros. ( Lv 11-4-6-8 )

58 – Estes são os animais que podem comer : boi, ovelha, cabra, veado, gazela, cabrito montes, cabra selvagem, antílope, búfalo, ovelha montesa. Todo animal que tem as unhas fendidas, divididas em duas,  e que rumina ( Dt 14:4 )

59 – Não guarde ódio no coração.  Não se vingue. Ame os outros como você ama a si mesmo (Lv 19:17 ) ( Lv 19: 18 )

60 –Não cruzem animais domésticos de especies diferentes. Não semeiem tipos diferentes de semente no mesmo campo ( Lv 19:19 )

61 – Não procurem advinhar o futuro, nem pratiquem feitiçarias. ( Lv 19:26 )

62 – Não se cortem, nem façam marcas no corpo, quando chorarem a morte de alguém ( Lv 19:28 )

63 – Não prejudique os outros usando medidas falsas de comprimento, peso ou capacidade. Usem balanças certas, pesos certos e medidas certas. ( Lv 19-35 )

64 – Nao invoquem espíritos dos mortos, nem pratiquem feiticarias. Qualquer homem ou mulher que o fizer, devera ser morto a pedradas. Esta pessoa será a responsável pela sua própria morte ( Lv 20-27 )

65 – Se um homem ou mulher, tiver relações com um animal, os dois deverao ser mortos. Por causa desse ato nojento, eles seram responsáveis pela própria morte ( Lv 20:16 )

66 – Não trabalhem e não comam nada, no dia 10 do sétimo mês (do calendário hebreu ). Este e´o DIA DO PERDAO em que os pecados do povo são perdoados. Não trabalhem em todos os lugares onde morarem, vocês e o seus descendentes. E se alguém trabalhar neste dia, então eu destruirei esta pessoa . ( Lv 23:27-28 )

67 – Não deixem de fazer a diferença entre animais e aves´ “ PURO ” e “IMPURO” : E´DEUS quem decide se um animal ou uma ave, ou um animal que se arrasta pelo chão, e´impuro ou não. E DEUS proíbe que vocês comam qualquer coisa impura, pra que também não fiquem impuros. “ Sejam Santos ( puros ) pois Eu o Senhor sou Santo ( puro ) ( Lv 20:25 )

68 – Não toquem no corpo de alguem morto ou animal ou ave. Voce ficara impuro ! Todos os que tem corrimento no membro, ou doença contagiosa da pele, são impuros. Não se contaminem ! ( Nr 5:2 )

Porem, se vocês não obedecerem a todos meus mandamentos, se rejeitarem minhas leis, se desprezarem minhas ordens e quebrarem minha alianca que fiz com voces, então eu os castigarei :

1- Mandarei desastres e doenças e febres que abalam a saúde e enfraquecem o corpo. ( Lv 26:14 )

2 – Porem, se nem assim me obedecerem e continuarem a transgredir minhas leis: Mandarei um castigo 7 vezes pior. Acabarei com seu poder, de que vocês se orgulham. Não mandarei chuva e o chão ficara duro como ferro. ( Lv 26: 18 )

3 – E se ainda assim continuarem a transgredir minhas leis: Mandarei outro castigo ainda 7 vezes pior. Mandarei para o meio de vocês, animais selvagens que matarão os seus filhos, acabarão com o seu gado, e matarão tanta gente que não haverá ninguem para andar pelas estradas.( Lv  26: 22 )

4 – E se ainda assim continuarem teimando : Ordenarei que povos inimigos os ataquem e prendam. Farei com que vocês sejam atacados por doenças graves. A comida será tão pouca e ninguém conseguira matar a fome. ( Lv 26: 23 )

5 – E se mesmo assim vocês continuarem a me desafiar, mandarei um castigo 7 vezes ainda pior:  Haverá tanta falta de comida que vocês devorarão seus próprios filhos. Eu destruirei os lugares onde vocês adoram deuses pagãos. Arrasarei completamente a terra. Eu farei com que haja guerra. ( Lv 26:27 )


1 – Obedecam fielmente a todas estas leis, e assim os outros povos verao que vocês são sabios e inteligentes ( Dt 4:6 )

2 – Assim você e seus descendentes serao felizes e viverão muitos anos na terra. ( Dt 4:40 )

3 – Temam o Senhor nosso DEUS, voces, seus filhos e seus netos, e cumpram todos os mandamentos e leis que Deus nos da´, e assim vocês viveram muitos anos. ( Dt 6:2 )

4 – Obedecam fielmente a todas estas leis . Se fizermos isso, ele nos guardara de todo mal como tem feito ate hoje e tudo sempre correra bem para nos. ( Dt 6:24 )

5 -  Obedecam fielmente a todas estas leis : Assim DEUS os amara e abencoara. Fará com que se tornem mais e mais numerosos. ELE lhes dara muitos filhos e boa colheita de cereais, uvas, azeitonas e muitas crias de gado e de ovelhas. ( Dt 7:12-13 )

6-  Obedecam fielmente a todas estas leis : E todos teram filhos e seus animais terao crias. O Senhor DEUS os protejera´ de toda enfermidade e nunca os castigara com terríveis doenças. Pelo contrario, ele mandara essas doenças para os povos que odeiam vocês. ( Dt 7:14 )

7 - Obedecam fielmente a todas estas leis: Voces terao toda comida que quiserem, construirao casas boas onde morarão, o seu gado e seus rebanhos aumentarão, vocês ajuntarão mais prata e ouro e terão tudo de sobra. ( Dt 8:11 )

8 - Obedecam fielmente a todas estas leis: E não haverá mulher que aborte em sua terra e nem estéril. DEUS completara o numero de seus dias. ( Ex 23:26 )

9-  Obedecam fielmente a todas estas leis: ELE e´o que que te da forcas para adquirir riquezas ( Dt 8:18 )

10– Hoje vou deixar que vocês escolham entre “ Bencao ”  ou “ Maldicao ”.  Voces receberão a “ Bencao”  se obedecerem as leis do Senhor ou receberão a “ Maldição ” se não obedecerem as leis e rejeitarem os mandamentos. ( Dt 11: 26-27-28 )


“Não pensem que eu vim para acabar com a Lei De Moises ou com os ensinamentos dos profetas. Não vim para acabar com elas , mas sim para lhes dar o seu sentido completo.”

1 - O Pecado : Arrependam-se dos seus pecados , pois esta perto o Reino De DEUS  ( Mt 4:17 )

2 – O Odio : Em verdade vos digo que, qualquer um que ficar com raiva do outro, ou disser “ você não vale nada” ou disser “idiota” ,etc,  estará em perigo de ir pro inferno.  ( Mt 5:21 )

3 – O Adulterio : Em verdade vos digo, quem olhar para uma mulher e desejar possui-la, já cometeu adultério em seu coração. ´( Mt 5:32 )

4 – O Divorcio : Todo homem que mandar sua esposa embora ( a não ser em caso de adultério) , será culpado de fazer com que ela se torne adultera se ela se casar de novo. ( Mt 5:31 )

5 – Os Juramentos : Não jurem de jeito nenhum. Nem pelos Ceus, nem pela terra, nem pela sua cabeça. Diga somente “Sim” ou “Não” pois qualquer coisa que você disser a mais, vem do Maligno ( Mt 5:33-37 )

6 - A Vinganca : Não se vingue dos que fazem mal a você. Se alguém lhe der um tapa na cara, vire o outro lado para ele bater também. ( Mt  5:39 )

7 – Os Inimigos : Amem seus inimigos e “orem” pelos que perseguem vocês.  ( Mt 5:44 )

8 – A Oracao : Quando orar, va para seu quarto, feche as portas, e ore ao seu “ Pai ” que não pode ser visto. E o seu Pai, que vê o que você faz em segredo, lhe dara a recompensa ( Mt 6:6 )

9 – Modelo de Oracao : Pai nosso que estas no Ceu, que todos reconheçam que teu nome e´ santo. Venha o teu Reino. Que a sua vontade seja feita aqui na Terra como e´feita no Ceu. Da-nos hoje o alimento que precisamos. Perdoa as nossas ofensas como também nos perdoamos as pessoas que nos ofenderam. Não deixe que sejamos tentados, mas livra-nos do mal. Pois teu e´o Reino, o poder e a gloria para sempre. Amem ! ( Mt 6:9 )

10 – Perdoe as Ofensas : Porque se vocês perdoarem as pessoas que ofenderam você, o Pai de vocês que esta no Ceu, também perdoara´ vocês. ( Mt 6:14 )   

11 – Riquezas no Ceu : Não ajuntem riquezas aqui na terra. Pelo contrario, ajuntem riquezas no Céu, pois onde estiverem as suas riquezas ali estara o coração de vocês. ( Mt 6:19-20-21 )

12 – Crer em Jesus Cristo : ”Rios De Agua Viva” vão  jorrar do coração de quem crer em mim ! ( Joao  7:38 )

13 – Não julgue os outros : Não julguem os outros para voces não serem julgados por Deus. Porque Deus julgara vocês do mesmo modo que vocês julgarem os outros e usara com vocês a mesma medida que vocês usarem para medir os outros ( Mt 7:1 )

14 – Pedir a Deus : Pecam e receberão, procurem e acharão, batam e a porta será aberta para voces. Porque todos aqueles que em oração pedem, recebem ! ( Mt 7:7 )

15 – Ame ao próximo : Facam aos outros o que querem que eles façam a você mesmo ! ( Mt 7:12 )

16 – Quem entra no Reino Do Ceu : Somente aqueles que fazem a vontade do meu Pai, que esta no Ceu ( Mt 7:21 )

17 – Sejam bondosos : Eu quero que as pessoas sejam bondosas e não que me ofereçam sacrificios de animais. ( Mt 9:12 )

18 – Sejam espertos : Sejam espertos como a cobra e sem maldade como as pombas ( Mt 10:16 )

19 – Não tenham medo : Não tenham medo daqueles que matam o corpo, mas não podem matar a alma. Porem tenham medo de Deus que pode destruir no inferno tanto a alma como o corpo. ( Mt 10:26 )

20 – Confesse que e´de Cristo : Se uma pessoa afirmar publicamente que pertence a mim, eu também no Dia do Juízo, afirmarei diante do meu Pai, que esta no Ceu, que ela pertence a mim ! ( Mt 10:32 )

21 – Expulsao de Demonios : Na verdade , e´pelo poder de Deus que eu expulso demônios e isso prova que o “Reino De Deus”  já chegou ate vocês ! ( Mt 12:28 )

22 – Não blasfeme contra o Espirito Santo : Quem falar contra o Espirito Santo , não será perdoado nem agora , nem no futuro. ( Mt 12:32 )

22 – Espiritos Maus (demônios ) : Quando um espírito mau sai de alguém, anda por lugares sem água, procurando onde descansar, mas não encontra. Entao diz; vou voltar para minha casa de onde eu sai. Ai volta e encontra a casa vazia, limpa e arrumada. Depois sai e vai buscar outros 7 espiritos piores ainda, e todos ficam morando ali. Assim a situação daquela pessoa fica pior do que antes. E isso também acontecera com essa gente ma´ de hoje ! ( Mt 12:43 )         

23 – Fazer a vontade de Deus : Quem faz a vontade do meu Pai, que esta no Céu, este e´meu irmão, minha irma e minha mãe. ( Mt 12:50 )

24 – As pessoas que ouvem a mensagem do Reino de Deus : Não deixem o Maligno tirar estas informacoes de vocês : O Maligno, vem e tira o que foi semeado no coração de voces ( Mt 13:19 )

25 – Não façam com que os outros pequem : O Filho do Homem mandara os seus Anjos, e eles ajuntarão e tirarão do seu Reino, todos os que fazem com que os outros pequem e também todos os que praticam o mal. Depois os Anjos jogarão estas pessoas na fornalha de fogo, onde vão chorar e ranger os dentes de desespero. ( Mt 13:41 )

26 – O Reino Do Céu: O Reino do Céu e´um tesouro escondido num campo, que certo homem acha e esconde de novo. Fica tão feliz , que vende tudo o que tem e depois volta e compra o campo ! ( Mt 13:44 ) O Reino do Céu e´ainda como uma rede que e´jogada no lago. Ela apanha peixes de todos os tipos. Os que prestam são postos dentro dos cestos e os que não prestam são jogados fora ! No “Fim dos Tempos” também será assim. Os Anjos sairão e separarão as pessoas mas das boas, e jogarão as pessoas mas na fornalha de fogo. E ali elas vão chorar e ranger os dentes de desespero. ( Mt 14:47 )

27 – Quem tem Fe´ não duvida e não tem medo : Jesus andou em cima da agua ! Mas Pedro, o discípulo, teve medo, duvidou e afundou...( Mt 14:25-31 ) Eu afirmo a vocês, que se vocês tiverem Fe´ e não duvidarem, voces poderao dizer a este monte, levante-se e jogue-se no mar, e isso acontecera ! Se crerem receberão tudo o que pedirem em oracao ! ( Mt 21:21 ) Não tenham medo ! Tenham Fe´! ( Mc 5:36 ) Tudo e´possivel para quem tem Fe´! ( Mc 9:23 ) Se não duvidarem em seu coração, mas crerem que vai acontecer o que disseram, então isso será feito ! Por isso, eu afirmo a vocês, quando vocês orarem e pedirem alguma coisa, creiam que já a receberam e assim tudo lhes será dado ! ( Mc 11:22 ) 

28 – O comer sem lavar as maos : Não e´o que entra pela boca que faz com que alguém fique impuro. Pelo contrario, o que sai da boca e´ que pode tornar uma pessoa impura. O que entra pela boca vai para o estomago e depois sai do corpo. Mas o que sai da boca vem do coração. E´ isso que faz com que a pessoa fique impura. Porque e´do coração que vem os maus pensamentos, os crimes de morte, os adultérios, as imoralidades sexuais, os roubos, as mentiras e as calunias. Comer sem lavar as mãos não torna ninguém impuro ! ( Mt 15:11-17 )

29 – As Criancas : E´ delas o Reino dos Ceus. Se vocês não mudarem de vida, e não ficarem iguais as crianças, nunca entrarão no Reino Dos Ceus. A pessoa mais importante no Reino do Ceu e´aquela que se humilha e fica igual a uma criança. O Pai que esta no Céu, não quer que nenhum desses pequeninos se perca. Cuidado, não desprezem nenhum desses pequeninos. Eu afirmo que os anjos deles estão sempre na presença do meu Pai, que esta no Céu. ( Mt 18:2 -10-14 )

30 – O mais importante mandamento da Lei : Ame o Senhor seu Deus, com todo o coração, com toda a alma e com toda a mente. O segundo mais importante : Ame os outros como você ama a voce mesmo ! ( Mt 22:37-38-39 )

31 – Os Falsos Cristos : Tomem cuidado  para que ninguém engane voces. Porque muitos vao aparecer fingindo ser “Eu” e dizendo : “Eu sou o Messias”. E enganarao muitas pessoas ! ( Mt 24:4 ) Portanto se alguém disser a vocês : Vejam “O Messias esta aqui” ou “O Messias esta ali”, não acreditem. Porque aparecerão falsos Profetas e falsos Messias que farao milagres e maravilhas para enganar se possível ate o povo escolhido de Deus. ( Mt  24:23 )

32 – Ressurreicao dos Mortos : Quando os mortos ressuscitarem, serao como Anjos do Céu e ninguém vai se casar. Deus não e´Deus dos mortos e sim dos vivos. ( Mc 12: 25-27 ). Todos os mortos vao ressuscitar. Não fiquem admirados por causa disto. Todos os mortos ouvirao a voz do Filho do Homem e sairão das suas sepulturas. Aqueles que fizeram o bem, vão ressuscitar e viver, e aqueles que fizeram o mal vão ressuscitar e ser condenados. ( Joao 5:28 )      

 33 – O Amor e o Pecado : Eu afirmo a vocês que o grande amor que ela ( uma pessoa ) mostrou, prova que os seus muitos pecados ja foram perdoados. Mas onde pouco e´perdoado, pouco amor e´mostrado ! ( Lc 7:44 )

34 – Os Olhos e a Luz do Corpo : Os olhos são como uma luz para o corpo. Quando os olhos de você são bons, todo o seu corpo fica cheio de Luz. Porem se os seus olhos forem maus, o seu corpo ficara´ cheio de escuridão. ( Lc 11.34 )  

35 – O Julgamento no Céu : Aquele que cre no Filho De Deus, não e´julgado. Mas quem não crê já esta julgado porque não crê no único Filho de Deus. E e´assim que o julgamento e´feito. ( Joao 3:18 )

36 – Jesus disse como entrar no Ceu : De agua a quem tem sede. De comida a quem tem fome. Receba o estrangeiro em sua casa. De roupas aos que não tem o que vestir. Visite os doentes. Visite os presos.-  Eu afirmo a vocês que isto e´verdade : quando vocês fizeram isto aos mais humildes dos meus irmãos, foi a a mim fizeram. Aqueles que não fizerem isto, eu direi : Afastem-se de mim, vocês que estão debaixo da maldição de Deus. Vao para o fogo eterno, preparado para o Diabo e seus Anjos.  ( Mt 25:35-40-41 )

* Nota do autor : Não foram abordados os temas : Aborto, Drogas e Cigarro. Pecam a Deus em oração, para esclarecer isto a vocês !

* Author da pesquisa : Nelio Guerson  :  Boa sorte a todos vocês !
   Data : 09/10/2012

Fontes :
1 - Biblia Sagrada, edicao com notas para jovens. Nova tradução na linguagem de hoje. Sociedade Bíblica do Brasil. ( Presente da minha filha Susie Guerson)

2 - Biblia Sagrada, Alfalit Brasil. ( Presente do meu filho John Guerson )